Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Studies of Kernel Extract of Sclerocarya birrea In Rats.

Muhammad S., Hassan L. G., Dangoggo S. M., Hassan S. W., Umar K. J., Aliyu R. U.


Sclerocarya birrea fruits are widely eaten in developing countries especially in rural areas and serves as nutrients supplements. However, they also contain phyto-toxin which may affect the normal functioning of the body. Acute toxicity was performed by a single oral administration at a dose of 3000 mg/kg body weight. Sub chronic evaluation was done by oral feeding of the rats with the seed kernel extract daily at doses of 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. The results of acute toxicity showed no mortality and general behavior changes. The lethal dosage (LD50) was greater than 3000 mg/kg body weight. Rats fed with 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the extract showed increased body weights throughout the period of treatment but not significantly (p<0.05) different from the control group. Significant (p<0.05) reduction in the body weights were noticed in those administered with 3000 and 4000 mg/kg body weight at the 4th and all the weeks respectively. Significant (p<0.05) increased in serum total protein, albumin, bilirubin, transaminases, creatinine, urea, uric acid and electrolytes were observed in rats fed with 3000 to 4000 mg/kg body weight of the extract, suggesting liver and kidney toxicity. Therefore, the seed kernel extract of S. birrea may be relatively toxic at doses of 3000 and 4000 mg/kg body weight.

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