Toxicity Studies of The Aqueous Root Extract of <i>Lecaniodiscus cupanioides</i> On Albino Rats.
AbstractThe aqueous root extract of Lecaniodiscus cupaniodes was used to study the toxicity pattern of the plant. The extract was found to be non-toxic up to 200mg/kg, when given through oral route to mice within 24 hrs and for additional 14 days. Acute toxicity test (24 hrs i.p.) produced a dose dependent mortality with LD50 of 455.2+3.6 mg/kg. Sub-chronic oral toxicity tests (45 days) in rats did not show any mortality and no significant (p<0.05) change in body weight compared to the control. Feeding habits and water intake did not change at the doses tested – 80mg/kg, 400 mg/kg & 2 g/kg throughout the study. No significant (p<0.5) change in weight of vital organs (liver, kidneys, hearts and spleen) except the lungs that showed a significant increase at 200 mg/kg of the extract. Also, an insignificant decrease in the weight of the liver was produced as the doses increased. Hematological studies revealed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in red blood cell (RBC) at 400 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, but no significant change in percentage packed cell volume (PCV %) and hemoglobin (Hb) were noted. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were also not affected significantly (p<0.05). Moreover, an insignificant (p<0.05) reduction of WBC was recorded in all the doses tested. Differential WBC counts revealed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in neutrophil at 200 mg/kg and monocytes at all doses. Biochemical parameters such as serum aspartate, amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and uric acid levels were also not potentially toxic, even when taken chronically, justifying its use in traditional medicine.