OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS AMONG HIV/AIDS PATIENTS SEEKING HEALTH CARE AT NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, ABUJA, NIGERIA
Individuals with advanced HIV infection are prone to other infections called opportunistic infections (OIs). This study determines the prevalence of OIs among HIV infected patients. Five hundred and ninety-six (596) HIV positive Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) naive subjects referred to the Microbiology and Biotechnology Department, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Abuja, Nigeria for diagnosis were recruited into the study. The socio-demographic and OIs isolated from patient’s data were collected and analysed by Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS) software (version 17.0, SPSS, Chicago, USA). ANOVA was used to compare the groups and (p ≤ 0.05) was set to be statistically significant. 203 (34.1%) patients presented with OIs. Isolated sputum bacterial pathogens included Mycobacterium tuberculosis (4.9%), Streptococcus pneumonia (7.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (10.0%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.5%). Urinary tract infection pathogens are Eschericha coli (19.7%), Klebsiella aerogenes (9.9%), Proteus vulguria (2.5%). Stool pathogens are: Salmonella typhi (8.9%), Shigella spp (7.9%). High vaginal swab (HVS) pathogens are Candida albicans (7.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (1.0%) and Streptococcus faecalis (1.5%). The presence of each pathogen in the various anatomical sites was statistically significant (p< 0.05). The study established OIs among HIV/AIDS patients and the need to have treatment options apart from the use of ART.