PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIPROLIFERATIVE PROPERTIES OF ARTOCARPUS ALTILIS (SUKUN) FROM ENDAU ROMPIN, JOHOR, MALAYSIA
This study aimed to investigate the phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of Artocarpus altilis collected from Endau Rompin, Malaysia. Phytochemical profiling was determined using GC-MS. The antioxidant properties were evaluated by using FRAP, ABTS and DPPH assays while the effects of A. altilis on the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells was evaluated by using MTT assay. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis was evaluated using flow cytometry analysis. The results showed that there is significant antioxidant activity as compared to the standard L-ascorbic acid (methanol extract with 91.0±0.31, ethyl acetate extract 87.4±0.55 and hexane extract had 22±0.6mg ACEAC/g) in DPPH, in FRAP (methanol extract with 65.0±0.16, ethyl acetate extract 48.4±0.11 and hexane extract had 39.0±0.05mg ACEAC/g) and finally in ABTS (methanol extract with 31.3±1.84, ethyl acetate extract 20.2±0.69 and hexane extract had 9.6±0.71mg ACEAC/g). The GC-MS analysis of methanol extract revealed the presence of at least 39 compounds. The extract of A. altilis was found to induce cytotoxicity against both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell line with IC50 values of 18.00μg/ml, 4.80μg/mL, and 4.95μg/mL in MCF-7 and 17.16μg/mL, 14.88μg/mL and 4.93μg/mL, in MDA-MB-231 at 24, 48 and 72hr respectively. Cell cycle analysis showed that A. altilis induced apoptosis at various stages in both cell lines and significant reduction in number of viable cells was observed. Apoptosis occurred during the first 24 hours and significantly increased after 48 and 72 hours of treatment. These findings suggested that A. altilis extract has the potential as natural antioxidant and anticancer agents. Further study is needed to verify the efficacy of this extract in in vivo and isolation of active compounds.