MYCOLOGICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF POULTRY DROPPINGS FROM POULTRY PENS WITHIN ILORIN, KWARA, NIGERIA
Mycological and bacteriological assessment of poultry droppings from poultry pens within Ilorin metropolis, Kwara, Nigeria and the incidence of antibiotic resistance pattern of the bacterial isolates were investigated. The bacterial and fungal counts ranged from 3.9 x 106 - 2.5×109 and 1.0 x104 - 1.6 x 107 CFU/g respectively. The counts of total coliform, faecal coliform, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 1.9 x 10 2 – 3.9×107, 0.0 - 1.0 x10 6, 1.0 x102 - 1.4 x 107, and 0.0 - 2.0 x 105 CFU/g respectively. The count of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was zero in all the poultry droppings. The bacteria characterized and identified were Micrococcus holobium, Pseudomonas picketti, Bacillus pumilus, Enterobacter agglomerans, Staphylococcus alrettae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Salmonella enteritidis, Streptococcus pluranimalium and Cellobiococcus sciuri. The fungal species isolated were Candida tropicalis, Saccharomyces sp., Sporendonema sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium oxysporum, Kloeckera sp., Zygosaccharomyces sp., Candida sp., Aspergillus niger, and Saccharomycopsis. All the Gram negative bacteria were resistant to ceftazidime, gentamcin and Amoxycillin-clavulinate while all the Gram positive bacteria were resistant to ceftazidime, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cloxicillin and Amoxycillin-clavulinate. S. aureus and Microbacterium holobium were resistant to all the antibiotics used. It was concluded from this study that the poultry droppings harboured pathogenic bacteria some of which were multiple antibiotics resistant. It is recommended that poultry droppings should be prevented from contaminating poultry feed, and the trough containing feed and water. There should be regulation on the use of antibiotics for growth promotion and disease prevention in poultry birds.