ORAL CAVITIES MULTIDRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA COLONIZATION IN APPARENTLY HEALTHY DOGS IN JOS, PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA
Dogs harbor pathogenic, zoonotic or multidrug resistant bacteria in their oral cavities and may serve as a possible source of transmission to humans through direct contact or bite. We therefore carried out a clinic-based cross-sectional study design to assess the level of multidrug resistant bacteria colonization of oral cavities of apparently healthy dogs presented for routine examination, vaccination and deworming. Oral swabs were taken from 100 apparently healthy dogs of different age, breed and sex. Isolation and identification of bacteria was done based on colony morphology and biochemical test. Antibiotic sensitivity test to 12 antibiotics was carried out on the isolates using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to standard protocol. The study showed that the oral cavities of all the dogs included in the study have one or more bacteria species. E. coli accounted for the greater proportion (43.21%) of the isolates. Other isolates include Klebsiella spp, Bacillus spp and Staphylococcus aureus. There was also a mixed isolates of E. coli and Yeast (23.57%), E. coli and Bacillus (3.57%), E. coli and Staphylococcus (1.79%), E. coli and Streptococcus (1.79%) and Staphylococcus and Bacillus (1.79%). There was no statistically significant difference in the isolation based dogs’ characteristics such as age, sex, breed and management system. Varying degree of sensitivity was observed in the isolates. Some of the isolates displayed resistance to 2 or more antibiotics. The isolates showed resistant phenotype to β-lactam antibiotics-amoxicillin and ampicillin ranging between 75.0%−100.0% and 0.0%−83.0% respectively. Susceptibility of the isolates ranges between 83.3%−100.0%, 66.7%−100.0%, 63.7%-100% and 50.0%−83.3% for fluoroquinolone antibiotics-peflacin, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid and aminoglycoside-streptomycin respectively. The dogs’ population sampled during the period were 6 years old and below. Six breeds of dogs; Caucasians, German shepherd, mastiff, Rottweiler and indigenous breeds were sampled. Apparently healthy dogs of different ages, sex, breeds, and management systems are colonized with multidrug resistant bacteria in their oral cavities and suggest a possible transmission to their owners and or handlers. Indiscriminate antibiotic use should be avoided by dog owners. Culture and antibacterial sensitivity testing in the event of dog bite is recommended.