PRELIMINARY CYTOTOXICITY STUDIES ON SOME NIGERIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS USED AS TRADITIONAL ANTICANCER REMEDIES
Crinum jagus, Icacina trichantha and Solanum erianthum are used in ethno-medicine for the treatment of cancer. This study screened different parts of these plants (leaves and bulb of C. jagus; leaves and tuber of I. trichantha; and leaves and stem of S. erianthum) for cytotoxicity. Dried samples of these plant parts were extracted successively with hexane, ethylacetate and methanol using the maceration method and concentrated to dryness using a rotary evaporator. Cytotoxicity studies on the extracts were carried out using the brine shrimp assay at concentrations of 10 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL and 1000 µg/mL (in triplicates). The response of the nauplii to different concentrations of the extracts was observed after 24 h. The LC50 value was used as a measure of the toxicity of the extracts. The LCc50 values for the different extracts of the leaves and bulb of Crinum jagus ranged between 0.251 µg/ml and 10.280 µg/ml. Values ranging between 9.992 µg/mL and 192.602 µg/mL were obtained for the leaves and tuber of Icacina trichantha. The leaves and stem of Solanum erianthum gave LC50 values between 2.395 µg/mL and 84.924 µg/mL. The plant parts under study had very low LC50 values and therefore show promise as potential sources of novel anticancer agents.