HISTOPHATOLOGICAL STUDIES ON EFFECT OF SERUM LIVER ENZYMES OF NAJA NIGRICOLLIS AND BITIS ARIETAN VENOM
Snake envenoming is a major problem in West Africa especially Nigeria which has the highest risk to humans and animals. In this study, the histophathological effect of Naja nigricollis and Bitis arietan crude venom at a sub-lethal dose have been investigated on liver of male mice. Venom injected interpretoneally (ip) in mice and 3.5mg/kg body weight at time intervals of 3, 6 and 24h after injection. Enzymes serum aspartate transaminase (AST) showed a tendency to increase with time, the increase was recorded significant from 2, 6 and 24 h with value from 0.1699 ± 0.06841 to 0.2362 ± 0.02916 of the Bitis Arietan venom when compared with the Naja nigricollis venom of 0.1569 ± 0.0598 to 0.018297 ± 0.07783. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) revealed a tendency to decrease with time and was found to significantly decrease at the 3, 6 and 24 h from the beginning of the experiment.
In the present work, the elevated activity of AST might indicate liver and other vital organ damage brought about by the venoms. Knowledge of the biochemical parameters of snake venoms is very important in understanding the pathological manifestation of the envenomation and may be also fundamental in deciding on appropriate drugs to use in clinical envenomation.