PHYTOCHEMICAL, PHYSIOCOCHEMICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SOME ANTIMALARIAL HERBAL CONCOCTIONS PREPARED IN KADUNA METROPOLIS
Antimalarial herbal concoctions are mixtures of whole plants or parts of two or more plants species administered as oral decoctions, steam baths or infusions. The phytochemical studies of all the antimalarial herbal concoctions obtained from Gonin-gora (A), Ungwan-mu’azu (B), Central market (C), Tudun-wada (D) and Mando (E) revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates and cardiac glycosides but saponins were only found in Tudun-wada and Ungwan-mua’zu samples while tannins were present in Gonin-gora, Tudun-wada and Mando samples. However, anthraquinones were not detected in all samples. Thus the presence of flavonoids, saponins and tannins in all the samples could be the reason for the antimalarial activity of the concoctions. The elemental analyses of all the samples revealed the presence of Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn. The concentration of Cr in all the samples were found to be within the range of 0.26±0.01 to 5.68±0.07 which was above the W.H.O. maximum permissible limits (0.05mg/L). Pd was only found in Ungwan-mu’azu, Central market and Tudun-wada samples which was found to be within the range of 0.07±0.00 to 0.09±0.00 which was above the W.H.O. permissible limits (0.05mg/L). The pH of all the samples was found to be within the range of 6.23 to 6.77 which indicated them as weakly acidic. The total ash analyses of all the samples revealed that Mando (19.33±0.55%), Ungwan-mu’azu (55.83±0.35%) and Gonin-gora (48.57±0.65%) which indicated high level of contamination probably in the processing steps, while that of Central-market and Tudun-wada samples had the least ash contents (1.04±0.00%). The moisture content of all the samples were found to be within the range of 12.93±0.00% to 44.30±0.01% but that of Ungwan-mu’azu, Central-market and Tudun-wada samples had high moisture contents which indicated that these herbal concoctions can be easily attacked by micro-organisms while those from Gonin-gora (12.99±0.00%) and Mando (12.93±0.00%) were within the permissible limits (14%).