Cofactors Influencing Prevalence And Intensity of <i>Schistosoma haematobium</i> Infection In Sedentary Fulani Settlements of Dumbi, Igabi LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

  • Kanwai S. Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
  • Ndams I. S. Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
  • Kogi E. Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
  • Abdulkadir J. S. Department of Biology, School of Basic and Remedial Studies, Funtua.
  • Gyam Z. G. University Health Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
  • Bechemagbor A. Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.


An epidemiological study of sedentary Fulani settlements in Dumbi, Igabi Local Government Area of Kaduna State was undertaken to determine cofactors of Schistosoma haematobium prevalence and  intensity of infection. Consenting individuals were recruited after sensitization from six settlements and administered a structured questionnaire to obtain demographic and risk factors data. Urine samples were collected from 657 individuals and analyzed by centrifugation, and the number of ova was determined by microscopy. The population had an overall intensity of 73.93±17.4 with the highest value of 100.9±31.3 recorded in Dumbin Ladan while Angwan Sarki and Angwan Majima had lower  intensities of 4.00 ± 0.00 and 15.0 ± 0.00 respectively. Differences in intensity between males (73.44± 17.04) and females (77.82±48.96) were not significant (P>0.05). Although the correlation between age and intensity of infection was negative (r=–0.81), the infection was significantly associated with the age group 11-20 years. There was significant association  between risk factors; such as occupation, activities at the ponds, source of domestic water supply and distance of hamlets to ponds and the prevalence of the disease. Cattle rearing (OR=9.01; CI=4.00-20.75; P=0.00) and farming (OR=3.14; CI=1.82-5.43; P=0.00) showed significant association with the prevalence and intensity of the disease. Based on activities at the water bodies, people who fished and washed had the highest prevalence rate of 63.53%, while the highest mean intensity of the infection was observed in individuals that wash, fish, bath and water their cattle in the water bodies (OR=13.41; CI=8.64-20.8; P<0.05). Similarly, other activities such as bathing (OR=3.32; CI=1.76-6.27; P<0.05) and washing (OR=2.17; CI=0.59-7.72; P<0.05) were significantly associated with the intensity of the infection. Pond water as a major source of water supply showed significant association with the intensity of the disease (OR=61.63; CI=29.37-133.7; P<0.05). The study has revealed that urinary schistosomiasis is endemic in the settlements based on the intensity and human activities in the ponds that are the major source of water. The integrated control is recommended for the control of the disease in this area.